**Sub-Subjects: **

7.1: Agricultural Statistics,

7.2: Computer Application,

7.3: Bioinformatics)

**UNIT-I: **

Agriculture: Importance of Agriculture/Forestry/Livestock in national economy. Basic principles of crop production. Major diseases and pests of crops. Elementary principles of economics and agri-extension. Important rural development programmes in India. Organizational set up of Agricultural research, education and extension in India.

**UNIT-II: **

Mathematics: Real and complex numbers; polynomial and roots; de Moivreâ€™s theorem and its applications.

Elements of set theory- De Morganâ€™s laws; vector space, linear independence, orthogonality; matrices- addition and multiplication, rank of a matrix, determinants, inverse of a matrix, solution of a system of linear equations, characteristic roots and vectors; convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series- tests for convergence, absolute convergence; co-ordinate geometry in two dimensions – line, circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.

Differential calculus: limits, differentiation of function of a single variable; Taylorâ€™s and Maclaurinâ€™s theorems, mean-value theorem; maxima and minima; indeterminate form; curvature, asymptotes, tracing of curves, function of two or more independent variables, partial differentiation, homogeneous functions and Eulerâ€™s theorem, composite functions, total derivatives, derivative of an implicit function, change of variables, Jacobians. Integral calculus: integration by simple methods, standard forms, simple definite integrals, double integrals, change of order of integration, Gamma and Beta functions, application of double integrals to find area. Ordinary differential equations: differential equations of first order, Exact and Bernoulliâ€™s differential equations, equations reducible to exact form by integrating factors, equations of first order and higher degree, Clairautâ€™s equation, methods of finding complementary functions and particular integrals.

Calculus of finite differences, interpolation; numerical differentiation and integration, difference equations; solution of simple non-linear equations by numerical methods like Newton- Raphson method.

**UNIT-III: **

Introduction: Statistics â€“ definition, use and limitations; Frequency Distribution and Curves; Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic mean; Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Median, Mode; Measures of Dispersion: Range, Mean deviation, Quartile deviation, Variance and Coefficient of Variation; Probability: Definition and concepts, law of addition and multiplication, conditional probability, Bayesâ€™ theorem; Binomial, multinomial, Poisson and normal distribution; Introduction to Sampling: Random Sampling; Standard Error; Tests of Significance – Types of Errors, Null Hypothesis, Level of Significance, Testing of hypothesis; Large Sample Test- SND test for Means, Single Sample and Two Samples; Studentâ€™s t-test for Single Sample, Two Samples and Paired t test. F test; ChiSquare Test for goodness of fit and independence of attributes; Correlation and Regression and associated tests of significance. Experimental Designs: basic principles, Analysis of variance, Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized Block Design (RBD).

**UNIT-IV:**

Computers: input, output devices, memory, hardware, software; Classification, booting computer. Viruses, worms and antivirus. Operating System- some DOS commands, FORMAT, DIR, COPY , PATH, MD, CD and DELTREE. Types of files. WINDOWS: Desktop and its elements, WINDOWS Explorer, working with files and folders; setting time and date. Anatomy of WINDOWS. Applications â€“ MSWORD: Word processing features- Creating, Editing, Formatting and Saving; MSEXCEL: Electronic spreadsheets, concept, packages. Creating, editing and saving a spreadsheet. In-built statistical and other functions. Excel data analysis tools, Correlation and regression, t-test for two-samples and ANOVA with one-way classification. Creating graphs. MS Power Point and its features. MSACCESS: Concept of Database, creating database; Computer programming: Flow charts and Algorithms, Programming languages- BASIC, FORTRAN and C. Internet: World Wide Web (WWW), Concepts, web browsing and electronic mail. Bioinformatics – NCBI Genebank sequence database- primary and secondary database.

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